Acne and Comedone Treatment

What is an Acne?

Acne is one of the most common skin diseases that leads the patients to consult a physician. Acne, which is not only a cosmetic problem, but the cause of various psychological problems among people, occurs due to clogging in the follicular ducts (oil ducts in the mid-layer of the skin), to express with the simplest definition. Although it is more common in adolescence, it can occur at any age. It usually appears on the face mostly on the forehead and on the cheeks. Secondarily, it is seen on the back and chest areas. It can also appear on the shoulders, arms and hips.


What are the causes of acne formation?

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Hormonal problems
  • Stress
  • Some medicines used
  • Malnutrition
  • Oily skin
  • Wrong and poor quality cosmetics use
  • Polycystic ovary in women

What are the types of acne?

  • Microcysts (closed comedones)
  • Black spots (open comedones)
  • Papules (inflamed red bumps)
  • Pustules (inflamed yellow bumps)
  • Nodules (painful, inflamed, and hard large bumps)
  • Cysts (inflammatory soft bumps)

Which methods are used in the treatment of acne?

Depending on the severity of the clinical picture and its effects on the patient’s psychology, topical or systemic treatments can be applied. These treatments are: 


Topical applications (Creams) 

  • Creams containing retinoic acid
  • Creams containing benzoyl peroxide
  • Creams containing antibiotics
  • Creams containing azelaic acid
  • Combined treatment

Antibiotics therapy

Antibiotic treatment is preferred as the first option in the treatment of intense red rash and yellow inflamed swelling acnes. Often, antibiotics containing Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Cotrimoxazole are preferred for treatment. 


Hormone therapy

It is applied in the treatment of acne in people with polycystic ovarian syndrome (hormonal disorder). 


Other treatment options

To support the treatment of acne with medication or, according to the type of acne, after treatment; if it is deemed appropriate by the physician, there are complementary treatment methods such as cleaning comedones at certain times, chemical peeling processes, laser or phototherapies, draining cysts and injection of cortisone into them. These treatment methods contribute by accelerating the removal process of acne.


Comedone cleaning

Blackheads and whiteheads are recommended to be removed professionally, at regular intervals. This procedure must be done in clinical conditions and by specialists. The removal of comedones allows the skin to recover in a shorter time, and comedones are prevented from turning into inflamed acnes. The most effective treatment method for acne consisting of large closed comedones, is comedone cleaning. By means of comedone cleaning in a sterile environment and by specialists at regular intervals, scarring on the skin is also prevented.


Intralesional cortisone injections

Especially in patients with nodule and cyst intensive acne, a very small amount of diluted cortisone is injected in the acne to recover faster. This treatment should not be done alone, but must be combined with other treatments.